What is melanogenesis?

Melanogenesis is a complex biochemical process involved in the production of skin pigments that determine skin colour. These pigments mission is to protect the skin from damage caused by the solar radiations.

Melanogenesis depends on different exogenous and endogenous factors which leads to an over production of melanin in localized areas unleashing the appearance of unsightly blemishes. The main cause is exposure to UV radiations, but there are also other factors involved such as hormonal and genetic factors, hypofisiary disorders, the ingestion of photosensitizing medication, the use of certain cosmetics, deficiency of vitamin D…etc.

What is hyper pigmentation? What is melasma?

Hyperpigmentation is a common condition in which areas of skin become darker in colour than the normal surrounding skin. This darkening occurs when an excess of melanin (the brown pigment that produces normal skin colour) forms deposits in the skin.

Melasma is a common disorder of pigmentation that predominantly affects women. It is characterized by the development of hyperpigmented tan, brown or grey patches often symmetrically distributed in some areas of the face (centrofacial, malar, mandibular and forehead).

Multiple factors are involved in the aetiology and pathogenesis of melasma, including sun exposure, genetic predisposition, pregnancy, oral contraceptives and hormone therapy.

Between 50 and 80% of pregnant women and about one third of women taking oral contraceptives have been reported to develop melasma patches.

Furthermore stress, cosmetics and certain phototoxic drugs have been linked to this dermatosis.

Although melasma occurs in all ethnic groups, it is more prevalent in individuals with darker complexions living in areas with intense ultraviolet radiation.

These pigmentary disorders often have a severe impact on patient quality of life, causing great emotional distress.

How does the process of melanin synthesis occur?

Melanocytes are dendritic cells located in the epidermal basale membrane, responsible for melanin synthesis. These cells secrete melanosomes, melanin granules that are transferred through dendrites (cell prolongations) to the keratinocytes (epidermal cells), pigmenting them.

Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in the synthesis of melanin due to its activity at various steps of the melanin synthetic pathway. Melanogenesis process begins with the tyrosinase enzyme action that produces tyrosine oxidation, transforming it into dopa (dihydroxyphenylalanine). Next step is also catalyzed by the tyrosinase that produces dopaquinone by dopa dehydrogenation. After different chemical reactions dopaquinone will generate two different types of melanin:

eumelanines: pigmentations with black or brown colour. They create dark colouring.

pheomelanines: pigmentations with red or yellow colour. They create light colouring.

Due the the UV radiations stimulus, skin melanocytes transfer melanosomes to the keratynocites located in germinative layers of epidermis, that become pigmented storing melanin. Melanosomes are degraded when ascending different epidermal layers to get the corneous stratum.

How can be hyper pigmentations effectively treated? What does treatment success depend on?

Effective depigmentation treatment includes elimination of all possible causative factors together with the use of topical depigmentation agents, mild exfoliation (with superficial chemical peels) and sunscreen protection.

The most effective way of treating skin blemishes is by PREVENTION. UV exposure is the main factor of melasma formation. Prior to undergoing therapy, removal of the causative agent is mandatory to ensure optimal outcome. It is essential sun avoidance and the use of sunscreens (SPF 50).

Even in cloudy days sunscreen must be applied, as clouds just filter 10% of UV radiations. Moreover, sun is not the only source of UV radiations; computer screens, TV or incandescent lamps also emit UV radiations.

Before starting any depigmentation treatment, a complete SKIN DIAGNOSIS is essential to choose the right specific treatment to get an effective solution (clinical history, skin phototype, type of hyperpigmentation, intensity, localization and level of depth…)

Then it is needed the application of TREATMENT combining:

Different whitening actives inhibiting the melanogenesis process in the different stages, blocking melanin production.

Exfoliating agents that increase skin turnover and epidermal desquamation, eliminating melanin located in the kerationocytes and lightening the skin tone.

Antioxidant and regenerating ingredients, that facilitate skin recovering, increasing its hydration, elasticity and luminosity.

Solar filters that guarantee lasting results preventing the reappearance of blemishes.

What is melanoff Depigmentation Treatment?

melan:off Depigmentation Treatment is a topical procedure for the elimination

of all kind of hyper pigmentation of melanic origin, in a quick, safe and effective way.

It successfully treats melasma, dark spots, sun damage, uneven skin tone and skin hyperpigmentation problems located in the face, neck, neckline, hands and arms, typically found because of sun exposure, hormonal disorders, genetic predisposition, photosensitizing medications … etc.

The treatment also increases skin luminosity, hydration and firmness, improving tone and texture.

melan:off depigmentation treatment reduces and eliminates blemishes within one month with minimal side effects.

Why is melan:off treatment so effective? How does it work?

melan:off affects the melanogenesis process through the combination of different whitening active ingredients that block melanin production.

melan:off has a direct effect on the formation process of the pigment, and is based on the inhibition of tyrosinase, a basic enzyme involved in the melanin formation. It also has an exfoliating effect over pigmentation on skin surface that accelerates cell renewal process and produces epidermal desquamation, eliminating melanin located in the kerationocytes and lightening the skin tone. Antioxidant, moisturizing and regenerating actives accelerate skin repair process and preserve skin integrity, providing the skin with luminosity, smoothness, hydration and softness.

What does a melan:off session consist of?

melan:off includes different application stages in Doctor’s Office and maintenance products to be applied at home, specifically designed to get long lasting results of maximum efficacy.

Treatment process in 3 steps: the peel + the mask + the cream

1. melan:off whitening peel (pre-treatment in Doctor´s Office): it is applied in order to stimulate cell renewal removing death cells of the epidermal layer and increasing whitening principles penetration. It produces epidermis desquamation, eliminating melanin from the most external skin layer, lightening the skin tone.

2. melan:off intensive mask (treatment in Doctor´s Office): intensive depigmentation action that combines whitening, exfoliating and antioxidant active principles inhibiting all the stages involved in the melanogenesis process. The therapist applies the mask and after up to 10 hours (depending on the skin photo type) the client removes at home.

3. melan:off maintenance cream (home treatment): cream that assures the permanent elimination of blemishes and the maintenance of results thanks to its formulation that, as in case of melan:off intensive mask, includes whitening, exfoliating and antioxidant active principles.

When will I see the results?

The skin begins to improve one week after the treatment. However, the best results are seen just one month after and are successful in 97% of cases. Pigmentation marks are eliminated and the skin is rejuvenated, restoring its smoothness and luminosity.

How long does the results last?

The tyrosinase inhibitor process due to its nature is reversible; following treatment the enzyme will again begin producing new melanin. For this reason the whitening ingredients must be applied repeatedly over a long period of time. In order to get long lasting results, it is essential to prolong the treatment with melan:off maintenance cream during a minimum period of 3 months. Shorter periods may entail a backward movement in the process and the need of return to start. It is recommended one year of continuous treatment to consolidate results.

Is this a safe therapy?

It is a completely secure treatment, with minimal side effects (just a mild erythema after the application). During the first two days of the treatment, the skin may turn slightly red. Skin flaking may occur between the second and third day (skin renewal process). The formulation doesn’t contain hydroquinone, preserving skin integrity and avoiding skin irritation and undesirable side effects. The use of Hydroquinone has been tightly regulated in Europe and Asian countries since 2001 due to safety concerns. Hydroquinone adverse effects are linked to concentration and can lead to allergic and contact dermatitis, phototoxic reactions with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and irreversible exogenous ochronosis, a skin condition associated with adverse pigmentation and darkening of the skin.

Does it hurt?

Absolutely not. The only sensation the patient may experience if the skin is sensitive, is an itching feeling. Slight burning and tightening of the skin is also absolutely normal, especially during the first 24 to 48 hours after starting the treatment. Is there any post treatment necessary? PROTECTION: the most important factor in the development of hyperpigmentations is exposure to sunlight. Without the strict avoidance of sunlight, any treatment is doomed to fail. Patients who are using bleaching agents can expect a recurrence of disease on exposure to sunlight as well as artificial UVA and UVB light. With the aim of obtaining effective and long lasting results it is essential, during and after the application of melan:off treatment, the use of 3D Moisturizing Sunscreen Protection in order to protect the skin from the light aggressions and avoid tyrosinase activation and the beginning of the melanin production cycle.

REGENERATION: Following melan:off application, it is essential to apply X:treme Skin Renewal when necessary, in order to provide the skin with all the active principles needed to restore the hydration level, producing an intensive regenerating effect that gives back the skin its elasticity and smoothness.